This website includes interests of a lifetime - ranging across nature, outer space, cities and places arising from the imagination. Auxiliary websites flow from the 'portal elsewhere'.




Note: The year at the bottom of each webpage is the year the page was originally created. Minor modifications or updates will not trigger a change. A complete page redesign, such as is occuring with this website will merit a new year.




Stairs can provide a wonderful addition to the experience of living and visiting a city. They have been an integral part of cities on hills since ancient times. They will be part of the city of the future as well.

Stairs enable people on foot to move quickly and safely between nearby locations at different elevations. Stairs can provide one of the interesting physical details that make a city attractive and unique.

The Spanish Steps in Rome, Italy are a famous example of city stairs. They were built in the early 1700s to traverse a steep slope linking the Spanish embassy on the Piazza di Spagna below with the Piazza Trinità dei Monti and the church of Trinità dei Monti above. They were designed by Francesco De Sanctis after generations of discussion over how the steep slope to the church should be developed.

The stairs are a most popular Roman destination. This daytime panorama fully demonstrates the popularity.

Attributes of Spanish Steps

What makes these stairs such a success and what can we learn from their attributes in the design of future stairs in other cities?