WWilliam Graham's War Between the States

107th NY Campaign Chronology

The 107th New York Regiment of volunteers, the Campbell Guards, was organized at Elmira, N. Y. and mustered (assembled) in August 13, 1862. Camp Rathbun in Elmira, New York, where the 107th was organized, was also known as Camp #3. This camp later became a prison for Confederate prisoners of war.

Camp Rathbun, Elmira, New York
The regiment left Camp Rathbun in Elmira on August 13 and arrived in Washington on the 15th, marched through the city and over the Long Bridge into northern Virginia where for several weeks it camped at Camp Seward and trained among the forts guarding Washington. The regiment was attached to Whipple's Command, Defenses of Washington, D. C., to September, 1862.

September it was assigned to the 3rd Brigade, 1st Division, 12th Army Corps, Army of the Potomac (transferred to the Second Brigade in August 1863). On September 6, 1862 it began its long hard march north to the battlefield of Antietam.

Chronology*
Service Dates
Maryland Campaign Sept. 6-22, 1862
Battle of Antietam, Md Sept. 16-17
Duty at Maryland Heights Sept. 22-Oct. 29, 1862
Picket duty at Blackford's
Ford and Sharpsburg, Md
Oct. 30-Dec. 11, 1862
March to Fredericksburg, Va Dec. 12-16, 1862
Fredericksburg, Va Dec. 17-Jan. 19, 1863
“Mud March” Jan. 20-24, 1863
Stafford Court House Jan. 25-April 27, 1863
Chancellorsville Campaign April 27-May 6, 1863
Battle of Chancellorsville May 1-5, 1863
Gettysburg (Pa.) Campaign June 11-July 24, 1863
Battle of Gettysburg July 1-3, 1863
Pursuit of Lee to Warrenton Junction, Va July 5-26, 1863
Duty on line of the
Rappahannock River, Va
July 27-Sept. 23, 1863
Movement to Bridgeport, Ala Sept, 24-Oct. 3, 1863
Guarding Nashville &
Chattanooga Railroad, Tn
Oct. 1863 to April 1864
Atlanta (Ga.) Campaign May 1-Sept. 8, 1864
Operations about Rocky
Faced Ridge, Tunnel Hill and Buzzard's Roost Gap
May 8-11, 1864
Battle of Resaca, Ga May 14-15, 1864
Near Cassville, Ga May 19, 1864
New Hope Church May 25, 1864
Battles about Dallas, New Hope Church and Allatoona Hills May 26-June 5, 1864
Operations about Marietta and against Kenesaw Mtn. June 10-July 2, 1864
Pine Hill June 11-14, 1864
Lost Mountain June 15-17, 1864
Gilgal or Golgotha Church June 15, 1864
Muddy Creek June 17, 1864
Noyes Creek June 19, 1864
Kolb's Farm June 22, 1864
Assault on Kenesaw June 27, 1864
Ruff's Station, Smyrna Camp Ground July 4, 1864
Chattahoochie River July 5-17, 1864
Peach Tree Creek July 19-20, 1864
Siege of Atlanta July 22-Aug. 25, 1864
Operations at Chattahoochie River Bridge Aug. 26-Sept. 2, 1864
Occupation of Atlanta, Ga Sept. 2-Nov.15, 1864
Expedition from Atlanta to Tuckum's Cross Roads Oct. 26-29, 1864
Near Atlanta Nov. 9, 1864
March to the Sea Nov. 15-Dec. 10, 1864
Montieth Swamp Dec. 9, 1864
Siege of Savannah, Ga Dec. 10-21, 1864
Campaign of the Carolinas Jan. to Apr., 1865
Robertsville, SC Jan. 29, 1865
Averysboro, NC March 16, 1865
Battle of Bentonville, NC March 19-21, 1865
Occupation of Goldsboro March 24, 1865
Moccasin Swamp April 10, 1865
Occupation of Raleigh, NC April 14, 1865
Surrender of Johnston and his army - Bennett's House, NC April 26, 1865
March to Washington, D. C., via Richmond, Va. April 29-May 19, 1865
Grand Review, Washington, DC May 24. 1865
Mustered out, Wash., DC June 5, 1865
*Source: Dyer, Frederick H., A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion, Part 3, Des Moines, Iowa: The Dyer Publishing Co., 1908
It saw its first action, as a member of the Twelfth Army Corps' First "Red Star" Division, north of Sharpsburg, Maryland. The Battle of Antietam on September 17, 1862 would be known as the single most bloody day of the war. Following a winter of picket duty, guarding against other Confederate incursions along the Potomac River, it participated in the Battle of Chancellorsville.

Not long after Chancellorsville, it marched up to Pennsylvania where it met another invasion of the North by General Robert E. Lee at the Battle of Gettysburg. The 107th was not involved in the repulsing of "Pickett’s Charge", but it did help fight off the Confederate charge against Culp’s Hill earlier that day. If that charge had succeeded, the Rebels would have broken through to the rear of the Union troops who fought off Pickett.

Dead Confederate soldiers in the "slaughter pen" at the foot of Little Round Top at Gettysburg

Following Gettysburg, during the winter of 1863-64, the regiment was re-assigned to the Army of the Cumberland and sent to Tennessee to guard railroads. It was a welcome change from their previous duty, and for the most part the men thoroughly enjoyed their stay there. Little did they know that their hardest fighting and greatest loss of life lay in front of them in "Bloody Georgia."

On April 4, 1864 they were brought together in the Twentieth Army Corps, a consolidation of the 11th and the 12th corps. Together with other army corps, they were to form an army of 100,000 under General William T. Sherman, which would become of one of the most famous armies in the history of warfare. They would be part of his plan to devastate the underbelly of the Confederacy. The 107th fought hard in the many skirmishes and battles on its way to Atlanta, losing a great many men in the battle of New Hope Church, also known as Dallas. They were among the first troops to enter Atlanta, and they were part of its provost guard while Sherman's other corps sought to engage and defeat Hood's army.

They left Atlanta in mid November and began the "March to the Sea." Only three days out of the city over forty of them were captured, and sent off to Confederate prison camps. A week later a sergeant of the 107th raised the American flag over the state capitol at Milledgeville and his picture appeared on the cover of Harper's Weekly.

They continued on southward and participated in the capture of Savannah. Sherman's armies reached the outskirts of Savannah on December 10 but found that Hardee had entrenched 10,000 men in good positions, and his soldiers had flooded the surrounding rice fields, leaving only narrow causeways available to approach the city.

Earthworks, with Magazine Entrance, Fort McAllister

On December 13, William B. Hazen's division of Howard's army stormed Fort McAllister guarding the Ogeechee River, in hopes of unblocking his route and obtaining supplies awaiting him on the Navy ships. He captured it within 15 minutes. Some of the 134 Union casualties were caused by torpedoes, a name for crude land mines that were used only rarely in the war.

Sherman sent a message requesting Hardee's surrender. Hardee decided not to surrender but to escape. On December 20, he led his men across the Savannah River on a pontoon bridge hastily constructed of rice flats. The next morning, Savannah mayor R. D. Arnold rode out to formally surrender, in exchange for General Geary's promise to protect the city's citizens and their property.

General Sherman's Army entering Savannah, December 21, 1864
Sherman's men, led by Geary's division of the 20th Corps, occupied the city the same day. After resting there a while, they began their last campaign, the Carolinas Campaign would take them north through the Carolinas where they participated in the battles of Averasboro and Bentonville.

As Sherman pushed into North Carolina, Lee, lacking other alternatives, restored Joseph E. Johnston to a command and sent him against Sherman. The effort was futile. It had become clear that the South could no longer defend itself. Finally, at the end of this campaign Sherman's army would receive the surrender of General Joseph Johnson, which for all practical purposes ended the war.

There was one last march for them before they could go home. Onward to Washington they marched, where they would parade in the "Grand Review" of the Union Army on May 24, 1865 in front of the newly sworn in President Andrew Johnson. After the review they remained in camp near Bladensburg, Md. until June 5 when they were mustered out. They arrived home in Elmira on the 8th and were formally discharged from the service on June 18, 1865.

H Graem © 2008