This website includes interests of a lifetime - ranging across nature, outer space, cities and places arising from the imagination. Auxiliary websites flow from the 'portal elsewhere'.




Note: The year at the bottom of each webpage is the year the page was originally created. Minor modifications or updates will not trigger a change. A complete page redesign, such as is occuring with this website will merit a new year.



Megafauna Restored

Some animals by their nature create and maintain biological diversity, making ecosystems stable and productive. The Pleistocene era, with its variety of megafauna, is the epitome of such ecological diversity. Restoring large creatures to the natural landscape can bring forth in the modern world similar environments of great ecological diversity and complexity.

Pleistocene Extinction & Resurrection

Pronghorn & cheetah
Two hundred years in the future, the illustration could be a scene in a future wilderness in western North America.  The crucial aspect of the painting is not the relationship of predator and prey, but the reestablishment of an ancient bond.  For the death race between two of the fastest mammals on earth has not occurred for 10,000 years. 

Scientists within the last decade have advanced by article and editorial justification for a Pleistocene rebirth in North America. They advocate the reintroduction of large animals in North America as part of a resurrection ecology. A Harvard professor in 2013 introduced a rationale for actually resurrecting extinct megafauna through DNA manipulation.

European Initiative

Europe, with so many close living relatives of its extinct megafauna, has been taking a leadership role in the actual reintroduction and protection of large animals.

Surprisingly, one of Europe's smallest countries, the Netherlands has taken the biggest step in Western Europe to create a living wilderness with a megafauna dominated ecology. This Oostvaardersplassen lies below sea level and its current 15,000 acres includes 3000 roaming wild horses, red deer and long-horned wild cattle.

The European Bison is subject of a Europe-wide effort to bring back this species from virtual extinction. The Wildland Research Institute in the United Kingdom aims to recreate wildlands and return exterminated species to Britain. Large herbivores have been advocated as a means to reduce wildfire danger in Mediterranean Europe. In Russia there is an ongoing effort to create an actual Pleistocene Park in Yakutia.